This book, written in English and Dari, gives a comprehensive overview of the plant cover of Afghanistan. It is the first Field Guide and Pictorial Flora of Afghanistan ever published. From the hot lowland deserts to the cold snow belt of the Hindu Kush and to the monsoon influenced region in the E, this beautiful mountainous country harbours more than 4,000 species of vascular plants, many endemic and unique. The introductory part deals with the physical nature of the country, flora and vegatation, economic plants, ecology and nature conservation. There are also chapters on plant morphology and systematics, research tools, how to collect plants, as well as a comprehensive bibliography. In the pictorial part, more than 1,200 species are illustrated. The species are arranged in 4 main groups (pteridophytes, gymnosperms, dicots, monocots) and, within them, alphabetically by family and genus. Each plant species has a complementary brief description giving basic information on local and general distribution, ecology, life-form, flower and other interesting or relevant comments. The book is aimed at anyone, student or layman, who wants an introduction to the country’s rich vegetation. The year 2010 was declared the UN International Year of Biodiversity. The publication of this Field Guide is a meaningful contribution to this occasion and now is the appropriate time for its distribution among Afghan schools, universities and institutes.